Neonatology is a branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of premature babies and new born babies. Some of the conditions treated in neonatal intensive care include macrosomia, anemia, jaundice, gastroschisis, intrauterine growth restriction, sepsis, intraventricular hemorrhage, breathing problems, hypoglycemia, retinopathy of prematurity, feeding issues, necrotizing enter colitis, inability to control body heat and congenital heart disease.
Pediatrics is the branch of medicine dealing with the development, care, and diseases of infants, children, and adolescents.
Subspecialties of pediatrics include neonatology, child abuse pediatrics, clinical informatics, developmental-behavioural pediatrics, genetics, hospice and palliative care, pediatric allergy and immunology, pediatric cardiology, pediatric critical care, pediatric emergency medicine, pediatric endocrinology, pediatric gastroenterology, pediatric hematology, pediatric infectious disease, pediatric nephrology, pediatric oncology, pediatric pulmonology, pediatric rheumatology and adolescent medicine.
Clinical Pediatrics focuses on following areas such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), alternative medicine, antibiotics, bicycle injuries, childhood obesity, head lice, human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine, managing hypertension, new combination vaccines, new diabetes treatment, pediatric emergencies, practice management and resident education
Children are more influenced to environmental risks than adults because of a number of reasons. Children are constantly growing so they eat more food, drink more water, and breathe more air as compared to adults. They have increased vulnerability to illness.
Pediatric infectious diseases include lyme disease, persistent fever or fever of unknown origin, Osteomyelitis (infection of the bone), HIV/AIDS, complicated pneumonias, tuberculosis, lymphadenopathy (inflammation of the lymph nodes), recurrent infections those are mostly caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.
Pediatric cardiology represents heart problems in children. Some heart diseases in children are congenital heart disease (children are born with heart differences), such as holes between chambers of the heart, valve problems, and abnormal blood vessels. It includes:
Arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms) is treated using implantable devices, medical procedures, and surgery that controls the heartbeat,
Pulmonary hypertension (high blood pressure in lungs) and
Systemic hypertension (high blood pressure in the body)
Pediatric dentistry is a medical sub-specialty of dentistry dealing with children from birth through adolescence. Pediatric Dentistry also referred as “Pedodontics”. Some specialties include Pediatric dentistry, public health, endodontics, oral and maxillofacial pathology, oral and maxillofacial radiology, oral and maxillofacial surgery, orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics, periodontics, and prosthodontics.
Pediatric dermatology specialists diagnose and treat skin problems in children. Skin disorders including birthmarks (vascular and pigmented), skin disease, dermatitis (atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis), melanocytic nevi (moles), Geno dermatoses (inherited skin disorders), Skin diseases eruptions, rare form of skin cancer, drug eruptions, viral exanthemas, and collagen vascular disorders.
Pediatric endocrinology is a medical sub-specialty dealing with disorders of the endocrine glands, like variations of physical growth and sexual development in childhood, diabetes and many more. The most common disease of the specialty is type 1 diabetes, the next most common problem is growth disorders, particularly those amenable to growth hormone treatment.
Pediatric gastroenterology concerned with the sicknesses and ailments of the GI tract, liver and pancreas of children from infancy until age eighteen. The most common diseases are acute diarrhea, persistent vomiting, gastritis and problems with the development of the gastric tract.
Hepatitis B & C
Pediatric gynecology is a branch of medicine which deals with the health issues of girls and women including female reproductive system and breasts. Pediatric gynecology treatment conditions include female genital mutilation, miscarriage symptoms and causes, pediatric and adolescent gynecology, recent advances in pediatric gynecology, adolescent health, gynecological laparoscopy, diagnosis and treatment, uro infertility, contraceptives and imaging in gynecology
Pediatric ophthalmology is a sub-specialty of ophthalmology involved with eye diseases, visual development, and vision care in children.
Pediatric eye disease
Pediatric oncology is the treatment of cancers in children and young adults. Pediatric oncologists study in both pediatrics and oncology. Children with cancer are at risk for developing various cognitive or learning issues. These difficulties are also related to brain injury stemming from the cancer itself, like a brain neoplasm or central system metastasis or from side effects of cancer treatments like chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
Pediatric otolaryngology is a branch of medicine which deals with diagnosis and surgical treatment of ear, nose, throat and related parts of head and neck. It includes the treatment and conditions such as facial cosmetic surgery, ear conditions, nose conditions head and neck conditions and throat conditions.
Pediatric orthopedics is the branch of medicine concerned with the musculoskeletal system and treating injuries to bones, joints, ligaments, or tendons. Examples of pediatric orthopedic sub-specialty includes hand and upper extremity, shoulder and elbow, total joint reconstruction (arthroplasty), musculoskeletal oncology, surgical sports medicine and orthopedic trauma.
Poor nutrition can lead to a variety of issues in children, as well as excessive weight gain and obesity. Childhood obesity can in turn be a precursor to several health issues, from Type II diabetes to heart disease to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is essential to provide your child with proper nutrition and help him or her establish good eating habits that will last an entire lifetime.
Pediatric nursing is a branch of health-care that is mainly focus in providing care and support for new-born babies who were born prematurely, or suffering from health problems such as birth defects, infections, or heart deformities. Many neonatal nurses work in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), providing highly specialised medical care to at risk new-borns.
Pediatric nephrologists diagnose, treat, and manage several disorders affecting the kidney and urinary tract, as well as kidney failure, high blood pressure, inherited kidney diseases, kidney stones, urinary tract infections and abnormalities in the urine like blood and protein. Pediatric nephrologists generally provide the following services:
The interpretation of x-ray studies of the kidney
Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring
Pediatric Surgery is a branch of medicine which deals with diagnosis and surgical treatment of children. Some of the key topics include abnormal pathways, hernia repairs, removal of diseased intestines and reproductive defects. Pediatric anesthesia is a medical procedure to lock the senses of the patient temporarily. It includes general anesthesia- analgesia, protection, loss of consciousness and muscle relaxation; local anesthesia; loco regional anesthesia. Some of the key topics include anesthesia complications, anesthesia in vaccines, conduction or block anesthesia, dental or oral anesthesiology, neuro-anesthesia, cardiac anesthesia, pediatric anesthesia, topical anesthesia and regional anesthesia and acute pain.
Pediatrics case reports and case series includes the pediatric subspecialities, such as critical care, developmental and behavioral medicine, adolescent medicine, cardiology, dentistry, genetics, endocrinology, neonatology, perinatology, gastroenterology, haematology and oncology, surgery, neurology, rheumatology, psychology, pulmonology and nephrology.